Pages 4 through 35
Federal Law, Statue 426 was enacted on March 2, 1807.
You can view the law at:
From the start of the United States being a Nation there were people who said it was wrong to enslave people. They should be free and have equal protection under the law, with rights to education and other freedoms the law gave to all its citizens and foreign visitors. The basis for saying these rights were for everyone was their conviction that we are all one blood, one family. (Medical Studies by Scientists have proven that indeed we are one blood, one family.)
Between 1776 and 1794, almost 18 years, the United States was divided over the issue of slavery. On March 22, 1794, a Federal Slave Trade Act was adopted as Federal Law. Its purpose was to stop the building of ships, or equipping ships, for the Slave Trade.
Slave States said their State Rights gave them the right to disobey the law, and they did. What would change, is the confiscating of ships and their slaves.
Statue 426 would take effect on January 1, 1808.
Look at the Statues, and codes, that are preserved as Federal Law. They repeatedly identify slaves as negro’s, mulattos and persons of color.
(The persons of color that the Federal Law refers to includes American Indians, Mexicans and people from Central and South America, and Africans. Not all Africans are black. Some are yellow, and various shades of brown. The Mandingos are ebony black. All have their own unique language. According to Federal Law, they are all persons.)
Starting on January 1, 1808, the U.S. Navy could confiscate ships carrying slaves.
To circumvent the law, those who earned their living off the blood and sweat of slaves stooped to a new low. It was degraded, and something no honest person with a heart would have thought of. What is this degraded, unclean, and wicked act? It is called “Domestic Breeding”. Slave owners decided to breed slaves. They were held in pens, branded, and fed with scraps of food.
Children born as slaves were ripped from their parents and sold.
Before 1833 the anti-slavery movements in the United States were a loose-net unorganized group. With the breeding of slaves, this changed.
In 1833 the New England Anti-Slavery Society joined the American Anti-Slavery Society. At the same time, women in Pennsylvania organized the Women’s American Anti-Slavery Society. By 1838 there was a combined membership of more than 250,000 members in more than 1,350 locations.
In the District of Columbia, clustered around the Capitol, The President’s House, and the Smithsonian Institute, are 12 different sites for holding and selling slaves. The most notorious among them is a two story house with basement called the Yellow House on Block 433, guarded by vicious dogs, and men just as evil.
Across the street is another house, plus the other 10 sites scattered within the small business area. Also, every tavern is a site were the traders cluster to discuss their wicked, cruel, and barbaric practice.
The District is the administrative center for the Executive, Congressional, and Judicial Branch of the Federal Government. The evils of domestic breeding are visible to everyone.
People of color, including white people, were slaves. How did this happen? We will let 3 honorable, and praiseworthy people who suffered from the brutality of Domestic Slavery tell us their story. All are authors who speak eloquently. It is with pleasure that we present what they wrote.
“I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it. By far the larger part of the slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs, and it is the wish of most masters within my knowledge to keep their slaves thus ignorant. I do not remember to have ever met a slave who could tell of his birthday. They seldom come nearer to it than planting-time, harvest-time, cherry-time, spring-time, or fall-time. A want of information concerning my own was a source of unhappiness to me even during childhood. The white children could tell their ages. I could not tell why I ought to be deprived of the same privilege. I was not allowed to make any inquiries of my master concerning it. He deemed all such inquiries on the part of a slave improper and impertinent, and evidence of a restless spirit. The nearest estimate I can give makes me now between twenty-seven and twenty-eight years of age. I come to this, from hearing my master say, some time during 1835, I was about seventeen years old."
“My father was a white man. He was admitted to be such by all I ever heard speak of my parentage. The opinion was also whispered that my master was my father; but of the correctness of this opinion, I know nothing; the means of knowing was withheld from me.
My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant—before I knew her as my mother. It is a common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a very early age. Frequently, before the child has reached its twelfth month, its mother is taken from it, and hired out on some farm a considerable distance off, and the child is placed under the care of an old woman, too old for field labor. For what this separation is done, I do not know, unless it be to hinder the development of the child's affection toward its mother, and to blunt and destroy the natural affection of the mother for the child. ...
“I never saw my mother, to know her as such, more than four or five times in my life; and each of these times was very short in duration, and at night. She was hired by a Mr. Stewart, who lived about twelve miles from my home. She made her journeys to see me in the night, travelling the whole distance on foot, after the performance of her day's work. She was a field hand, and a whipping is the penalty of not being in the field at sunrise, unless a slave has special permission from his or her master to the contrary—a permission which they seldom get, and one that gives to him that gives it the proud name of being a kind master. I do not recollect of ever seeing my mother by the light of day. She was with me in the night. She would lie down with me, and get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. Very little communication ever took place between us. Death soon ended what little we could have while she lived, and with it her hardships and suffering. She died when I was about seven years old, on one of my master's farms, near Lee's Mill. I was not allowed to be present during her illness, at her death, or burial. …
“The master is frequently compelled to sell this class of his slaves, out of deference to the feelings of his white wife; and, cruel as the deed may strike any one to be, for a man to sell his own children to human flesh-mongers, it is often the dictate of humanity for him to do so; for, unless he does this, he must not only whip them himself, but must stand by and see one white son tie up his brother, of but few shades darker complexion than himself, and ply the gory lash to his naked back; and if he lisp one word of disapproval, it is set down to his parental partiality, and only makes a bad matter worse, both for himself and the slave whom he would protect and defend.”
It is at this point in his narrative that Mr. Douglass makes an important observation.
To justify the enslavement of blacks, the slave owner and those who earned their living off of the trade, said that slaves were black because they were cursed.
This is a reference to Noah’s grandson, Canaan. There was a global deluge, and Ham and his wife survived, along with his father and 2 brothers and their wives. It was years later, when Canaan was still a small child that he found his grandfather unclothed, passed out, and unconscious. Unbeknown to his grandfather, the little child played with his sexual organ and caused him to have an orgasm. When Ham, his father, saw what his son did, he felt no shame. Instead of covering his father, he left the tent to tell his brothers. Respectfully, they took a blanket, and walked backwards into the tent and covered their father. When their father learned what happened, he cursed his grandson Canaan. The curse did not turn Canaan’s skin black. (Genesis 9:24-27) God’s purpose was for Noah’s family to have children and fill the earth. To protect his family, Noah pronounced a curse against Canaan. Canaan (who was white) would pass forward his homosexual impulses and thoughts. As a parent, when he saw in his children a tendency toward what he had done, he could explain why they must avoid making the same mistake. If he failed, the curse would prevent homosexuals from becoming a dominate part of human society. This, because homosexuals cannot produce children. In Abraham’s day, God enforced the curse against Canaan’s offspring when he destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. (Genesis 10:19; 13:13; 19:1-29)
“In a short time”, Mr. Douglass said, “there will be more mixed bloods as slaves, than blacks. When that happens, what is their justification for slavery?
“Every year brings with it multitudes of this class of slaves. It was doubtless in consequence of a knowledge of this fact, that one great statesman of the south predicted the downfall of slavery by the inevitable laws of population. Whether this prophecy is ever fulfilled or not, it is nevertheless plain that a very different-looking class of people are springing up at the south, and are now held in slavery, from those originally brought to this country from Africa; and if their increase do no other good, it will do away the force of the argument, that God cursed Ham, and therefore American slavery is right. If the lineal descendants of Ham are alone to be scripturally enslaved, it is certain that slavery at the south must soon become unscriptural; for thousands are ushered into the world, annually, who, like myself, owe their existence to white fathers, and those fathers most frequently their own masters. ... "
(Douglass states that his sleeping place was on the floor of a little, rough closet, which opened into the kitchen; and “through the cracks of its [unplanned] boards, I could distinctly see and hear what was going on, without being seen by old master.”)
“Aunt (Esther) went out one night,—where or for what I do not know,—and happened to be absent when my master desired her presence. ... Why master was so careful of her, may be safely left to conjecture. She was a woman of noble form, and of graceful proportions, having very few equals, and fewer superiors, in personal appearance, among the colored or white women of our neighborhood. … Aunt (Esther) had not only disobeyed his orders in going out, but had been found in company with Lloyd's Ned; which circumstance, I found, from what he said while whipping her, was the chief offence. Had he been a man of pure morals himself, he might have been ... interested in protecting the innocence of my aunt; but those who knew him will not suspect him of any such virtue.
“Before he commenced whipping Aunt (Esther), he took her into the kitchen, and stripped her from neck to waist, leaving her neck, shoulders, and back, entirely naked. He then told her to cross her hands, calling her at the same time a d—d b—h. After crossing her hands, he tied them with a strong rope, and led her to a stool under a large hook in the joist, put in for the purpose. He made her get upon the stool, and tied her hands to the hook. She now stood fair for his infernal purpose. Her arms were stretched up at their full length, so that she stood upon the ends of her toes. He then said to her, "Now, you d—d b—h, I'll learn you how to disobey my orders!" and after rolling up his sleeves, he commenced to lay on the heavy cowskin, and soon the warm, red blood (amid heart-rending shrieks from her, and horrid oaths from him) came dripping to the floor. I was ... terrified and horror-stricken.”
Colonel Lloyd kept from 300 to 400 slaves at his Big House plantation. During its peak, the plantation surrounding the house encompassed 42,000 acres and over 1,000 slaves.
Mr. Douglass explains: “In hottest summer and coldest winter, I was kept almost naked—no shoes, no stockings, no jacket, no trousers, nothing on but a coarse tow linen shirt, reaching only to my knees. I had no bed. I must have perished with cold, but that, the coldest nights, I used to steal a bag which was used for carrying corn to the mill. I would crawl into this bag, and there sleep on the cold, damp, clay floor, with my head in and feet out. My feet have been so cracked with the frost, that the pen with which I am writing might be laid in the gashes (on the bottom of my feet.) We were not regularly allowanced. Our food was coarse corn meal boiled. This was called mush. It was put into a large wooden tray or trough, and set down upon the ground. The children were then called, like so many pigs, and like so many pigs they would come and devour the mush; ... He that ate fastest got most; he that was strongest secured the best place; and few left the trough satisfied.”
Edward Lloyd, the father of Frederick Douglass, was elected Governor of Maryland.
He was commissioned a Lieutenant-Colonel of the Ninth Regiment of Maryland.
He was elected to the United States Senate, where he served as chairman of the Committee on the District of Columbia. He resigned from the Senate on January 14, 1826.
He served as President of Maryland’s State Senate. He left the State Senate in 1831 and died in 1834.
Though serving in the Federal Government and State Government, Lloyd felt no loyalty. On his Estate, he served as Sovereign Ruler with absolute power. No State or Federal Law applied to him or to anyone serving on his Estate. Like other slave owners, he had rules, and overseers to enforce them. The men that served as overseers enjoyed the brutality, and were vulgar.
Felix Hall is just one of the many estates
owned by the Abdy family in Essex England.
Edward Strutt Abdy is the grandson of Dr. Thomas Rutherforth.
Dr. Thomas Rutherforth married Charlotte Elizabeth Abdy, the daughter of Sir William Abdy. Rutherforth serves as a Professor at Cambridge University, Archdeacon of Essex, and Chaplain to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Dowager. He is also appointed as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Scientists, and authors a number of scientific and theological works.
Dr. Thomas Rutherford dies on October 5, 1771, at the house of his wife’s brother Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy. His only son, Thomas, born December 5, 1755, is 15 years old. When Thomas reaches 20 years of age, by Royal License, he takes the name and Arms of Abdy. He is now known as Thomas Abdy. As Thomas Abdy he inherits Felix Hall, and its estates, from his uncle Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy. Three years later, on January 13, 1778, Thomas Abdy marries Mary Hays, daughter of James Hays. (They have 10 children.) A year later, in 1779, Thomas inherits the Albyns estates belonging to Sir John Abdy. Edward Strutt Abdy is the 5th and youngest son of Mary and Thomas Abdy.
Edward earns a Bachelor’s degree at Cambridge University.
Edward earns a Master’s degree.
For proven and sustained excellence as a teacher, Edward is awarded the title, “Fellow”. He is against slavery and the injustice that free blacks suffer. As a cover for his visit to the United States, he said he wants to study the prison reforms developed by New York’s Auburn Penitentiary.
Edward is 43 years old when he arrives in the United States. Unlike other visitors, Edward will spend much of his time in free black communities. He questioned why the Anti-Slavery organization in New York City was paying the black teachers less than white teachers for doing the same type of work in the “African” schools that they sponsored.
On July 4, 1834, he was in New York when a pro-slavery mob attacked a peaceful meeting of an integrated group of men and women who were against Slavery. Though called a mob, it was organized and lasted 8 days. They attacked the homes and businesses of free blacks and their supporters. Edward observed that the American Anti-Slavery Society response to the attack was weak. He also criticized the American Colonization Society for their wanting to send free blacks to Liberia. The free blacks were industrious, and succeeding in the United States.
Edward met with Maria Weston Chapman and Lydia Maria Child. What he said may have led to their decision to form the American Women’s Anti-Slavery Society.
On May 9, 1837, 175 women from 10 different States and representing 20 female anti-slavery groups, met in New York City to discuss their role in the American Anti-Slavery movement. Among those attending was Lucretia Mott, the Grimké sisters and Lydia Maria Child.
Edward leaves his personal wealth to Anti-Slavery Societies in the United States.
Edward describes Hartford, Connecticut, as one of the most disturbing racist communities he had visited. It seemed that they took pleasure at throwing stones at free blacks, and calling them names.
“In the afternoon I left Baltimore by the stage, for Washington (thirty-eight miles). The coach was filled with young men, who seemed to pay more attention to their rings and brooches and gold watches, than to the cleanliness of their hands, or the purity of their language. It rained in torrents, and the road was in a wretched state. About seven in the evening we entered the capital of the greatest slave-holding nation on the face of the globe; I speak of commercial, not of feudal, slavery:—of a system forced upon society, not springing naturally from its progress:—a disease engendered by the vices of its maturity, not an infirmity incidental to its infancy.
“I put up at Gadsby's hotel—an establishment upon an immense scale:— between three and four hundred persons having been at one time accommodated there. At Baltimore, the bed-room doors were locked, at the hotel; and the guests requested to leave their keys at the bar of the house. Here, on the contrary, I was informed that no precaution of the kind was necessary. As the servants at the one were white, and at the other black, I was curious to learn the cause of this difference. I asked, therefore, one of the waiters at the breakfast-table how many servants there were; and whether they were free. " Sir," replied the man, "there are seventy or eighty of us; and not one freeman." My heart sunk within me at this unexpected piece of intelligence. I felt shocked beyond description at the idea of being surrounded by slaves. "Do you be- long to the master of the house?" I inquired. "No," was his reply: "my owner lives at Alexandria:—I am let out, as many others are, to the landlord:—there are many here who do not know each other, even by name." The man spoke in a dejected voice, but his language was good—much better than what I had heard the day before in the stage. I conversed with him some time;—as long, indeed, as I remained the only white in the room;—and felt deeply convinced, by what he told me, that his fellow bondsmen, as well as himself, were unhappy and discontented.”
The Capitol of the United States, he said, was the greatest and largest Commercial Center on the face of the globe for the selling of slaves; not in its infancy, but in full maturity. “The distinction of color is unknown in Europe.”
Chief Ross, of the Cherokee Indians, was at the Capitol when Edward was there. He talked to the Chief, and others. In 1829 the Cherokee lands became the site of the first gold rush in the United States.
President Andrew Jackson and his Secretary of War, John Calhoun, insisted that the Indians be moved beyond the Mississippi River. Before they could be removed Calhoun established his own gold mining operations on their land. For the year of 1833, $1,736,000 in gold was mined. Gold at the time was $18.93 a troy ounce. Today it is $1,244.55 a troy ounce. At today’s price, the amount of gold stolen in one year from the Cherokee Indians was $114,133,058.64. The Cherokee’s were a civilized people, living in beautiful homes, with farms, horses and cattle. They organized themselves as did other States and asked for admittance into the Union. Greed for their gold prevented that.
“What a country, where injustice lays her persecuting hand upon those who have escaped from oppression! ... The farmers in the neighborhood of Washington, breed slaves, as our graziers breed cattle, for the market; and a mother’s agony for the loss of her child is no more regarded than the lowing of a cow for the calf that is carried off to be fattened for the butcher.
“It is not sufficient for the national dishonor, that the district marked out for the residence and immediate jurisdiction of the general government should be polluted by slavery. Here, under the eyes of Congress,―in defiance of public opinion,―and as if courting the observation of assembled legislators and ambassadors, a traffic, the most base and revolting, is carried on by a set of ruffians, ... They are called slave-traders, and their occupation is to kidnap every colored stranger they can lay their hands on. No matter whether he be free or not, his papers, if he chance to have any they can get at, are taken from him; and is hurried to gaol (jail). His papers, his money, and anything else of value are taken. With no way to pay for his prison cell, he is sold as a slave, and ushered south.
“Men, women, and children, indiscriminately, who come to Washington in search of employment, or come to visit their friends, are liable to be carried off by these land-sharks ... These villains deal with the drivers and agents, and sometimes with the planters themselves.
There are some owners who place in their will that a slave is to be released. To prevent that from happening, his surviving family will arrange to send the slave to Washington on some errand and, while there, have him or her kidnapped. One kidnapper received $1 dollar for his evil deed, and the next day the man that paid the dollar sold the man for $400.
Back to Edward's Book
“ ... a colored young woman was entering the city from the country, when she was pursued by one of these blood-hounds; and, to escape, threw herself into the river, and was drowned. No notice whatever was taken of this horrible occurrence by the public papers, though it was a matter of notoriety.
“Another woman, to save her children, who would all have been doomed to slavery, if her claims to freedom had been rejected, (threw) herself from the top of a house, where she was confined, and was so dreadfully mutilated and mangled that she was (allowed) to escape, because she was no longer fit for sale.
“There was no doubt that she was a free woman; ... a negro man, at the moment of his transfer to one of these blood-merchants, cut his own throat on a public wharf at Baltimore; … and, a few days ago, a negro woman, near Snow-hill in this State, (Maryland,) on being informed that she was sold, first cut the throat of her child, and then her own,―by which both of them immediately died.
“One day I went to see the “slaves’ pen”―a wretched hovel, “right against” the Capitol, from which it is distant about half a mile, with no house intervening. ... what passes within being reserved for the exclusive observation of its owner (a man of the name of Robey) and his unfortunate victims. ... It is surrounded by a wooden paling fourteen or fifteen feet in height, with the posts outside to prevent escape, ... In this wretched hovel, all colors, except white … both sexes, and all ages, are confined, exposed indiscriminately to all the contamination which may be expected in such society and under such seclusion.”
(No person of color was safe.)
On July 4, 1835, Dr. Norcom placed a $100 REWARD in the American Beacon.
James Norcom is born December 29.
James Norcom is born in Chowan County close to the northeast corner of North Carolina. He is the son of John and Miriam Standin Norcom. He received his early education at Edenton Academy, of which he later served for many years as a trustee. When 17 he began to study medicine in Philadelphia, where he was both a private student of Benjamin Rush and a registered student at the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. Norcom was awarded his M.D. degree in 1797, at the age of 19.
Dr. James Norcom Sr. wife is now 19 years old. Though young and beautiful, it does not stop Norcom from raping his slave. On February 11, when Norcom is 35, Harriet is born.
Everyone who knew him was aware that his life was a lie. He was harsh, vulgar, and had a roving eye for young mulatto's. Harriet, a mulatto, explains:
When I was six years old, my mother died; and then, for the first time, I learned, by the talk around me, that I was a slave.
When I was nearly twelve years old, my kind mistress sickened and died.
Trickery – Harriet’s mistress wrote in her will that Harriet was to be set free. Dr. James Norcom and Henry Flury added a clause to the will stating that Harriet was to be given to the little daughter of Dr. James Norcom Sr. The clause was unsigned, and an obvious addition. Because his daughter was young, Dr. Norcom Sr. became Harriet’s Master, with rights to have Harriet do whatever he desired.
The secrets of slavery are concealed like those of the Inquisition. My master was, to my knowledge, the father of eleven slaves. But did the mothers dare to tell who was the father of their children? Did the other slaves dare to allude to it, except in whispers among themselves? No, indeed! They knew too well the terrible consequences.
Reader, I draw no imaginary pictures of southern homes. I am telling you the plain truth. Yet when victims make their escape from this wild beast of Slavery, northerners consent to act the part of blood-hounds, and hunt the poor fugitive back into his den, "full of dead men's bones, and all uncleanness."
Northerners are ... proud, to give their daughters in marriage to slaveholders. The poor girls have romantic notions of a sunny clime, and of the flowering vines that all the year round shade a happy home. To what disappointments are they destined! The young wife soon learns that the husband in whose hands she has placed her happiness pays no regard to his marriage vows.
Children of every shade
of complexion play with her own fair babies, and too well she knows that they are born unto him of his own household. Jealousy and hatred enter the flowery home, and it is ravaged of its loveliness.
Southern women often marry a man knowing that he is the father of many little slaves. They do not trouble themselves about it. They regard such children as property, as marketable as the pigs on the plantation; and it is seldom that they do not make them aware of this by passing them into the slave-trader's hands as soon as possible, and thus getting them out of their sight. I am glad to say there are some honorable exceptions.
Are doctors of divinity blind, or are they ...
I suppose some are the one, and some the other; but I think if they felt the interest in the poor and the lowly, that they ought to feel, they would not be so easily blinded.
A clergyman who goes to the south, for the first time, has usually some feeling, however vague, that slavery is wrong. The slaveholder suspects this, and plays his game accordingly. He makes himself as agreeable as possible; talks on theology, and other kindred topics. The reverend gentleman is asked to invoke a blessing on a table loaded with luxuries. After dinner he walks round the premises, and sees the beautiful groves and flowering vines, and the comfortable huts of favored household slaves. The southerner invites him to talk with these slaves. He asks them if they want to be free, and they say, "O, no, massa." This is sufficient to satisfy him. He comes home to publish a "South-Side View of Slavery," and to complain of the exaggerations of abolitionists. He assures people that he has been to the south, and seen slavery for himself; that it is a beautiful "patriarchal institution;" that the slaves don't want their freedom; that they have hallelujah meetings, and other religious privileges.
What does he know of the half-starved wretches toiling from dawn till dark on the plantations? of mothers shrieking for their children, torn from their arms by slave traders? of young girls dragged down into moral filth? of pools of blood around the whipping post? of hounds trained to tear human flesh? of men screwed into cotton gins to die? The slaveholder showed him none of these things, and the slaves dared not tell of them if he had asked them.
There is a great difference between Christianity and religion at the south. If a man goes to the communion table, and pays money into the treasury of the church, no matter if it be the price of blood, he is called religious. If a pastor has offspring by a woman not his wife, the church dismiss him, if she is a white woman; but if she is colored, it does not hinder his continuing to be their good shepherd.
My concluding Thoughts
Norcom sexually harassed Harriet when she came of age. He refused to allow her to marry, regardless of the man's status. Hoping to escape his attentions, Harriet took Samuel Sawyer a white lawyer, as her consensual lover. Sawyer was later elected as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. With Sawyer, Harriet had two children, Joseph and Louisa. Because she was enslaved, their bi-racial children were born into slavery and James Norcom Sr. was their master. Harriet later wrote that Norcom threatened to sell her children if she refused his sexual advances, but she continued to evade him. By 1835 her domestic situation had become unbearable, and Harriet managed to escape. She took refuge in a swamp called Cabarrus Pocosin. She next hid in a crawl space above the ceiling of her Grandmother’s (Molly) shack. Harriet lived for seven years in her grandmother's attic before escaping in 1842 to the North by boat to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sawyer purchased their two children from James Norcom Sr. and let them live with Harriet’s Grandmother, but he did not free them.